Implementing Trusted Types with CSP

DOM Cross-site Scripting

Cross-site scripting (XSS) is one of the most prevalent vulnerabilities on the web. Nonce-based CSP is used to prevent server-side XSS. Trusted Types are used to prevent client-side or DOM-XSS. Trusted Types rely on the browser to enforce the policy that is provided to it. Currently, Trusted Types are supported on Chrome 83 and Android Webview. Many browsers are in the process of adding support. Check back for updated compatibility.

Follow the simple steps below to make your web application Trusted Types compliant.

Step 1: Enable Trusted Types and Report Only Mode

Trusted Types require data to be processed before being sent to a risky “sink” where DOM XSS might occur, such as when assigning to Element.innerHTML or calling document.write. When enforced, Trusted Types will tell the browser to block any data that is not properly processed. In order to avoid this, you must fix offending parts of your code. To see where adjustments will be required, turn on trusted types and report only mode.

Configure django-csp so that CSP_REQUIRE_TRUSTED_TYPES_FOR is set to ‘script’.

Configure django-csp so that CSP_REPORT_ONLY is set to True.

Configure django-csp so that CSP_REPORT_URI is set to an app or CSP report processing service that you control.

Now trusted types violations will be reported to your CSP_REPORT_URI without blocking any of your application’s functionalities.

Step 2: Fixing Trusted Types Violations

There are four ways to resolve trusted types violations. They are explained here in order of preference.

Rewrite the Code

It may be possible for your code to be rewritten without using dangerous functions. For example, instead of dynamically placing an image using the dangerous innerHTML sink, the image could be created with document.createElement and placed using the appendChild function.

Rewriting may be possible for any of the dangerous sinks, which are listed here.

  • Script manipulation:
    • <script src> and setting text content of <script> elements.
      • Tip: Avoid creating scripts at run time

      • Tip: Create a policy with a URL stringifier to verify scripts are from a trusted origin

  • Generating HTML from a string:
    • innerHTML, outerHTML, insertAdjacentHTML, <iframe> srcdoc, document.write, document.writeln, and DOMParser.parseFromString
      • Tip: Use textContent instead of inner HTML

      • Tip: Use a templating library that supports Trusted Types

      • Tip: Use createElement and appendChild as explained above

  • Executing plugin content:
    • <embed src>, <object data> and <object codebase>
      • Tip: Consider limiting plugin content by setting``CSP_OBJECT_SRC`` to none

  • Runtime JavaScript code compilation:
    • eval, setTimeout, setInterval, and new Function()
      • Tip: Avoid using eval entirely

      • Tip: Avoid passing strings to runtime compiled functions

Use a Library

When code cannot be rewritten to avoid dangerous sinks, Trusted Types require that data be processed before being passed to a dangerous sink. Processed data is wrapped in a TrustedHTML, TrustedScript, or TrustedScriptURL object to certify that it has been sanitized or otherwise assured to be safe in the given context. Some libraries will process data and return Trusted Types objects for you. For example, DOMPurify supports Trusted Types.


Libraries are preferred to writing your own sanitation policies since they are generally more comprehensive, secure, and well reviewed.

Create Trusted Types Policies

Where code cannot be rewritten and an existing library cannot be used, you will have to create Trusted Types objects yourself. This is done using policies. Different policies can be created for use in different contexts. Policies produce Trusted Types after enforcing security rules on their input based on the sink context. Each policy should be given a distinct name.

Here is an example policy that sanitizes HTML by escaping the < character.

if (window.trustedTypes && trustedTypes.createPolicy) {
const escapeHTMLPolicy = trustedTypes.createPolicy('myEscapePolicy', {
        createHTML: string => string.replace(/\</g, '&lt;')

Here is an example of how that policy can be used.

const escaped = escapeHTMLPolicy.createHTML('<img src=x onerror=alert(1)>');
console.log(escaped instanceof TrustedHTML);
el.innerHTML = escaped;


Keep in mind that you are creating your own security rules with policies. Your application is only protected from DOM XSS if you use strict sanitation rules that consider which sink is accepting the data.

Use a Default Policy

In the event that you don’t have control over the offending code, you can use a default policy. This may happen if you are loading a third party library that is not Trusted Types compliant. A default policy is defined the same way as any other Trusted Types policy. In order to be used by the browser as the default policy it must be named default.

The policy called default will be used wherever a string is sent to a dangerous sink that requires Trusted Types.

Step 3: Enforce Trusted Types

Once you have addressed all of the Trusted Types violations present in your application, you can begin enforcing Trusted Types to prevent DOM XSS.

Configure django-csp so that CSP_REPORT_ONLY is set to False.


To learn more about trusted types or learn how to limit policy creation with CSP_TRUSTED_TYPES take a look at the complete spec or the article this guide is based on.